Sunday, September 21, 2008

Filmmaking Technical crew

A film crew or Fimmaking Technical Crw is a group of people hired by a production company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. Crew are distinguished from cast, the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. Crew are also separate from producers, those who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production.

“Production” is generally not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups. These include the "front office" staff such as the Production Manager, the Production Coordinator, and their assistants; the accounting staff; the various Assistant Directors; and sometimes the Locations Manager and his or her assistants. The Director is considered to be a separate entity, not within the departmental structure.
Executive Producer is usually an investor in the project or just a credit that the filmmaker gave to someone who paid for the credit. You can have as many executive producers as you want but generally keep it to a minimum.

A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. The producer initiates, coordinates, supervises and controls matters such as raising funding, hiring key personnel, and arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the filmmaking process from development to completion of a project.

Production Manager
The production manager supervises the physical aspects of the production (not the creative aspects) including personnel, technology, budget, and scheduling. It is the production manager's responsibility to make sure the filming stays on schedule and within its budget. The PM also helps manage the day-to-day budget by managing operating costs such as salaries, production costs, and everyday equipment rental costs. The PM often works under the supervision of a line producer and directly supervises the Production Coordinator.

Unit Manager
The unit manager fulfills the same role as the production manager but for secondary "unit" shooting. In some functional structures, the unit manager subsumes the role of the Transport Coordinator.

Production Coordinator
The Production Coordinator is the information nexus of the production, responsible for organizing all the logistics from hiring crew, renting equipment, and booking talent. The PC is an integral part of film production.

Film Director
The director is responsible for overseeing the creative aspects of a film, including controlling the content and flow of the film's plot, directing the performances of actors, organizing and selecting the locations in which the film will be shot, and managing technical details such as the positioning of cameras, the use of lighting, and the timing and content of the film's soundtrack. Though the director wields a great deal of power, he or she is ultimately subordinate to the film's producer or producers. Some directors, especially more established ones, take on many of the roles of a producer, and the distinction between the two roles is sometimes blurred.

First Assistant Director
The first assistant director (1st AD) assists the production manager and director. The ultimate aim of any 1st AD is to ensure the film comes in on schedule while maintaining a working environment in which the director, principal artists (actors) and crew can be focussed on their work. He or she is in charge of overseeing the day-to-day management of the cast and crew scheduling, equipment, script, and set. A 1st AD may also be responsible for directing background action for major shots or the entirety of relatively minor shots, at the director's discretion.

Second Assistant Director
The second assistant director (2nd AD) is the chief assistant of the 1st AD and helps carry out those tasks delegated to the 1st AD. The 2nd AD may also direct background action and extras in addition to helping the 1st AD with scheduling, booking, etc. The 2nd AD is responsible for creating Call Sheets that let the crew know the schedule and important details about the shooting day. In Canadian and British functional structures there are 3rd ADs and even Trainee ADs; in the American system there are 2nd 2nd ADs.

Production Assistant
A production assistant assists the first assistant director with set operations. Production assistants, almost always referred to as PAs, also assist in the production office with general tasks.

Script Supervisor
Also known as the "continuity person", the script supervisor keeps track of what parts of the script have been filmed and makes notes of any deviations between what was actually filmed and what appeared in the script. He or she makes notes on every shot, also keeping track of props, blocking, and other details to ensure that continuity is maintained from shot to shot, and from scene to scene. The Script Supervisor's notes are given to the Editor to expedite the editing process. The script supervisor works very closely with the director on set.

Stunt Coordinator
Where the film requires a stunt, and involves the use of stunt performers, the stunt coordinator will arrange the casting and performance of the stunt, working closely with the director.

Art Department
The Art Department in a major feature film can often number hundreds of people. Usually it is considered to include several sub-departments: the art department proper, with its art director, set designers and draughtsmen; sets, under the set decorator; props, under the propmaster; construction, headed by the construction coordinator; scenic, headed by the key scenic artist; and special effects.

Production Designer
A production designer is responsible for creating the physical, visual appearance of the film - settings, costumes, properties, character makeup, all taken as a unit. The production designer works closely with the director and the cinematographer to achieve the 'look' of the film.

Within the overall Art Department is a sub-department, called the Art Department, which can be confusing. This consists of the people who design the sets and create the graphic art.

Art Director
The art director reports to the production designer, and more directly oversees artists and craftspeople, such as the set designer and set decorator, who carry out the production design.

Assistant art director
The first, second and third assistant art directors carry out the instructions of the art director. Their work often involves measuring locations, creating graphics and paper props, collecting information for the production designer and drawing sets. Sometimes a set designer is also the first assistant art director; in this capacity, he or she manages the work flow and acts as the 'foreman' of the drawing office.

Set Designer
The set designer is the draftsman, often an architect, who realizes the structures or interior spaces called for by the production designer.

The illustrator illustrates visual representations of the designs to communicate the ideas imagined by the production designer.

Set Decorator

The set decorator is in charge of the decorating of a film set, which includes the furnishings and all the other objects that will be seen in the film. He works closely with the production designer and coordinates with the art director. In recognition of the set decorator's importance, the Academy Award for Art Direction is given jointly to both the production designer and the set decorator.

The buyer is the number two person in the set department below the set decorator. The buyer locates, and then purchases or rents the set dressing.

Set Dresser
The set dressers apply and remove the "dressing," i.e., furniture, drapery, carpets—everything one would find in a location, even doorknobs and wall sockets. Most of the swing gang's work occurs before and after the shooting crew arrives but one set dresser remains with the shooting crew and is known as the on-set dresser. In some countries, such as England and Ireland, the set dressing department is referred to as dressing props department.

Props Master

The property master, more commonly known as the props master, is in charge of finding and managing all the props that appear in the film. The propsmaster usually has several assistants.

Props builder
The props builder, or more frequently propmaker, as the name implies, builds the props that are used for the film. Props builders are often technicians skilled in construction, plastics casting, machining, and electronics.

The armourer is a specialized props technician who deals with firearms. In most jurisdictions this requires special training and licenses.

Construction Coordinator

The construction coordinator oversees the construction of all the sets. The coordinator orders materials, schedules the work, and supervises the often sizeable construction crew of carpenters, painters and labourers. In some jurisdictions the construction coordinator is called the construction manager.

Head Carpenter
The head carpenter is the foreman of a "gang" of carpenters and laborers.

Key Scenic

The key scenic artist is responsible for the surface treatments of the sets. This includes special paint treatments such as aging and gilding, as well as simulating the appearance of wood, stone, brick, metal, stained glass--anything called for by the production designer. The key scenic artist supervises the crew of painters, and is often a master craftsperson.


The greensman is a specialised set dresser dealing with the artistic arrangement or landscape design of plant material, sometimes real and sometimes artificial, and usually a combination of both. Depending on the scope of the greens work in a film, the greensman may report to the art director or may report directly to the production designer. If a significant amount of greens work is required in a film, then the Greens may be an identifiable sub-department, with its own team - often of a size numbering double figures - and hierarchy (eg. Greensmaster, Greens Supervisor, Foreperson, Leading Hand, Laborers). Specialists from other areas of the Art Dept. (eg. Fabricators, Sculptors, Painters/Scenics) may also be drafted to work exclusively on Greens.

Hair and make-up
Make-up Artist
Make-up artists are beauticians that apply makeup to anyone appearing on screen. They concentrate on the area above the chest, the face, the top of the head, the fingers, hands, arms, and elbows. Their role is to manipulate an actors on screen appearance whether it makes them look more youthful, larger, older, or in some cases monstrous. There are also body makeup artist who concentrate their abilities on the body rather than the head.

The hair stylist is responsible for maintaining and styling the hair of anyone appearing on screen. He or she works in conjunction with the makeup artist.

Costume Designer

The costume designer is responsible for all the clothing and costumes worn by all the actors that appear on screen. He or she is also responsible for designing, planning, and organizing the construction of the garments down to the fabric, colors, and sizes. The costume designer works closely with the director to understand and interpret "character," and counsels with the production designer to achieve an overall tone of the film.

Costume Supervisor
The Costume Supervisor works closely with the designer. In addition to helping with the design of the costumes, the he or she manages the wardrobe workspace. He or she is responsible for supervising the construction or sourcing of garments, the hiring and firing of support staff, the budget, paperwork, and department logistics.

Key Costumer
The Key Costumer is employed on larger productions to manage the set costumers, and to handle the Star's wardrobe needs.

Costume Standby
The Costume Standby is present on set at all times. It is his/her responsibility to monitor the quality and continuity of the actors and actresses costumes before and during takes. (S)he will also assist the actors and actresses with dressing. This person is also known as a 'set costumer'.

Art Finisher
An Art Finisher may be employed during the pre-production stage to "break down" garments. This specialised job includes making new clothing appear dirty, faded and worn. They are also known as breakdown artists.

On large productions a Buyer may be employed to source and purchase fabrics and garments. A buyer might also be referred to as a shopper. This distinction is often made when the lead actor in a production has control over their wardrobe, and they may personally hire this person.

A costume technician who fits or tailors costumes, usually on-set. They can also be called cutters, seamstresses or tailors. Some celebrity actors have favorite cutters, and larger productions may hire several and have them on set at the same time, particularly in period film projects that might have complicated or extremely expensive extras wardrobe.

Director of Photography

The director of photography is the chief of the camera and lighting crew of the film. The DP makes decisions on lighting and framing of scenes in conjunction with the film's director. Typically, the director tells the DP how he or she wants a shot to look, and the DP then chooses the correct aperture, filter, and lighting to achieve the desired effect.

The term cinematographer has been a point of contention for some time now. It is usually synonymous with "director of photography," though some professionals insist that it only applies when the director of photography and camera operator are the same person.

Camera Operator
The camera operator uses the camera at the direction of the cinematographer, director of photography, or the film director to capture the scenes on film. Generally, a cinematographer or director of photography does not operate the camera, but sometimes these jobs may be combined.

First Assistant Camera (Focus Puller)
The first assistant camera (1st AC) is responsible for keeping the camera in focus as it is shooting.

Second Assistant Camera (Clapper Loader)
The second assistant camera (2nd AC) operates the clapperboard at the beginning of each take and loads the raw film stock into the camera magazines between takes, if there is no additional specifically desiginated film loader. The 2nd AC is also in charge of overseeing the meticulously kept notebooks that records when the film stock is received, used, and sent to the lab for processing. Additionally, the 2nd AC oversees organization of camera equipment and transport of the equipment from one shooting location to another.

The loader is the designated film loader. He transfers motion picture film from the manufacturer's light-tight canisters to the camera magazines for attachment to the camera by the 2nd AC. After exposure during filming, the loader then removes the film from the magazines and places it back into the light-tight cans for transport to the laboratory. It is the responsibility of the loader to manage the inventory of film and communicate with the 1st AC on the film usage and remaining stock throughout the day. On small production crews, this job is often combined with the 2nd AC. With the prevalence of digital photography, this position is often eliminated.

Camera Production Assistant (camera intern)
Usually a volunteer or trainee in the camera department, the camera PA assists the crew with menial details while learning the trade of the camera assistant, operator or cinematographer.

Digital Imaging Technician ("DIT")
On digital photography productions the digital imaging technician is responsible for the coordination of the internal workings of the digital camera. Under the direction of the cinematographer or director of photography, the DIT will make adjustments to the multitude of variables available in most professional digital cameras to creatively or technically manipulate the resulting image.

Steadicam operator
A Steadicam operator is someone who is skilled at operating a Steadicam rig (the genericized trademark for a camera stabilization rig).

Motion Control Technician/Operator
This technician operates a motion control rig, which is essentially a 'camera robot' that is able to consistently repeat camera moves for special effects use. Motion control rigs are typically rented with an experienced operator.

Production Sound
Production Sound Mixer

The production sound mixer is head of the sound department on set, responsible for recording all sound during filming. This involves the choice and deployment of microphones, operation of a sound recording device, and sometimes the mixing of audio signals in real time.

Boom Operator
The boom operator is an assistant to the production sound mixer, responsible for microphone placement and movement during filming. The boom operator uses a boom pole, a long, special piece of equipment made from light aluminum or carbon fiber, that allows precise positioning of the microphone above or below the actors, just out of the camera's frame. As well as the Placement of Radio Mics and other Microphones 'Hidden' on set. In France, the boom operator is known as the perchman.

Utility Sound Technician
The utility sound technician has a dynamic role in the sound department, most typically pulling cables, but often acting as an additional boom operator or mixer when required by complex filming circumstances. Not all films employ a utility sound technician, but the increasing complexities of location sound recording in modern film have made the job more prevalent. This role is sometimes credited as "cable man" or "python wrangler."

Grips are trained lighting and rigging technicians. The main responsibilities of a grip are to work closely with the electrical department to put in the lighting set-ups necessary for a shot. On the sound stage, they are responsible for moving and adjusting major set pieces when something needs to be moved to get a camera into position. They may belong to the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees.

Key grip
The key grip is the chief grip on a set, and is the head of the set operations department. The key grip works with the director of photography to help set up the set and to achieve the correct lighting and blocking.

Best boy (Grip)
The best boy grip is the chief assistant to the key grip. They are also responsible for organizing the grip truck through out the day.

Dolly grip
The grip in charge of operating the camera dolly is called the dolly grip. He/she places, levels, and moves the dolly track, then pushes and pulls the dolly and usually a camera operator and camera assistant as riders.


The gaffer is the head of the electrical department, responsible for the design and execution of the lighting plan for a production. Sometimes the gaffer is credited as "Chief Lighting Technician".

Best boy (Electrical)
The best boy electric is the chief assistant to the gaffer.

Lighting Technician
Lighting technicians are involved with setting up and controlling lighting equipment.

Film Editor

The film editor is the person who assembles the various shots into a coherent film, with the help of the director. Film editors may belong to the American Cinema Editors (A.C.E.)

With a photochemical process, the color timer adjusts the color of the film via printer lights for greater consistency in the film's colors. With a digital intermediate process, the colorist can use digital tools in manipulating the image and has greater creative freedom in changing the aesthetic of a film.

Negative Cutter
The negative cutter cuts and splices the negatives as directed by the film editor, and then provide the assembled negative reels to the lab in order for prints (positives for projection) to be made.

Visual Effects
Visual Effects Supervisor

The visual effects supervisor is in charge of the visual effects department. Visual effects refer to post-production alterations to the film's images. They are not to be confused with special effects, which are done during production (on set).

A compositor is a visual effects artist responsible for compositing images from different sources such as video, film, computer generated 3-D imagery, 2-D animations, matte paintings, photographs, and text.

Inferno, Flame
These artists operate an Inferno or Flame visual effects system. These systems are manufactured by Discreet (now a division of Autodesk).

Roto, paint
These artists may rotoscope the footage, manually creating mattes for use in compositing. They may also paint visual information into or out of a scene, such removing wires and rigs, logos, dust busting, scratch removal, etc.

Matte Painter
These artists draw/paint entire sets or extend portions of an existing set.

Sound Designer

The sound designer, or "supervising sound editor", is in charge of the post-production sound of a movie. Sometimes this may involve great creative license, and other times it may simply mean working with the director and editor to balance the sound to their liking.

Dialogue Editor
Responsible for assembling and editing all the dialog in the soundtrack.

Sound Editor
Responsible for assembling and editing all the sound effects in the soundtrack.

Re-recording Mixer
Balances all of the sounds prepared by the dialogue, music and effects editors, and finalizes the films audio track.

Music Supervisor
The music supervisor, or "music director", works with composer, mixers and editors to create and integrate the film's music. In Hollywood, a music supervisor's primary responsibility is to act as liaison between the film production and the recording industry, negotiating the use rights for all source music used in a film.

The composer is responsible for writing the musical score for a film.

Foley Artist
The foley artist is the person who creates and records many of the sound effects for a film.

Saturday, September 20, 2008

Screenplay Writing

Welcome to Movie lovers and Screen Writers, Directors also Filmmakers into my new outlined articles on Film and Television screenplay writing. Today I am going to tell you or introducing to you a common rules and regulations in screen-writing methods, such filmmaking and television genres. Most of Filmmakers and technicians are using these methods worldwide, especially in Hollywood.

Screenplay or Script Writing
A screenplay or script is a written plan, authored by a screenwriter, for a film or television program. Screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing works such as novels.
The major components of a screenplay are action and dialogue, with the "action" being "what we see happening" and "dialogue" being "what we hear" (i.e., what the characters utter). The characters, when first introduced in the screenplay, may also be described visually. Screenplays differ from traditional literature conventions in ways described below; however, screenplays may not involve emotion-related descriptions and other aspects of the story that are, in fact, visual within the end-product.

Screenplays in print are highly formal, conforming to font and margin specifications designed to cause one page of screenplay to correspond to approximately one minute of action on screen; thus screen directions and descriptions of location are designed to occupy less vertical space than dialogue, and various technical directions, such as settings and camera indication are set apart from the text with capital letters and/or indentation. Professional screenplays are always printed in 12-point Courier, or another fixed-width font that appears like typewriter type.

In the United States, the Writers Guild of America, East (WGA) has final control on who may be awarded screenwriting credit for a screenplay in a union production. The WGA is one of several organizations in the U.S. and worldwide which recognize screenplays with awards.
A script for television is sometimes called a teleplay.

Sample Screenplay Script

Spec script
A spec script is a "speculative" screenplay, one that the Variety slanguage dictionary defines as being "shopped or sold on the open market, as opposed to one commissioned by a studio or production company."
Spec scripts are written for various reasons:
by writers, who hope to have a script optioned and eventually purchased by producers or studios;
by writer/directors, who want to direct a film themselves;
by amateur writers hoping to convince a literary agent to represent them or a producer to hire them.
Spec scripts have not always held as much cachet in the business as they do now. Ernest Lehman describes how his original script for North by Northwest was unusual at that point in his career:

Originals were not smiled upon in those days, believe it or not. There was very little interest in originals in those days. [...] Studios, distributors wanted the assurance of someone else having thought a property worth publishing[...] In those days, if you went to a party in the Hollywood community and somebody would ask, "What are you working on, Ernie?" and you replied, "I'm doing an original now," the response would be "Oh." [...] Like they were a little embarrassed[...] If you were working on something that you were going to create all by yourself, they'd secretly think, "He's in bad shape. Working on an original." That definitely was the climate at one time in this town.

Attracting producers
The process of 'going out' with a spec script can be an extremely tense and nerve-wracking one for a writer. If the writer has an agent, the agent will identify a number of prospective buyers who may range from small independent producers to executives working in the major studios, and attempt to build up 'heat' under the script. The script is sent out simultaneously to all the prospective buyers, usually to be read over the weekend, in the hope of attracting a bidding war.
If the script sells, the writer may receive a payment of anything from a few tens of thousands of dollars to several million. If not, the script is sometimes dead in the water because it is now in the databases of the studios and development executives, and has been marked as having been 'passed' on.

However, most of the hundreds of thousands of spec scripts penned each year are written by unknowns who are trying to attract attention and find it difficult to generate the kind of “buzz” that more established scribes count on to sell their scripts. (See the screenwriting documentary Dreams on Spec.)

Sample script
A sample script is usually not intended for production, but to showcase the screenwriting skills of the author, in hopes of attracting the attention of an agent or producer. Often a spec script which fails to sell goes on to be a sample script.

Shooting script
A shooting script is the version of a screenplay used during the production of a motion picture. Shooting scripts are distinct from spec scripts in that they make use of scene numbers (along with certain other formatting conventions described below), and they follow a well defined set of procedures specifying how script revisions should be implemented and circulated.

When a screenplay is approved for production, the scenes are assigned numbers which are included in the script alongside the scene headers. The numbers provide a convenient way for the various production departments to reference individual scenes.
After a shooting script has been widely circulated, any rewrites are distributed on revision pages. This avoids having to print and distribute an entirely new draft for every set of revisions. Revision pages are distributed on colored paper (a different color for each set of revisions), with the revisions themselves marked by asterisks. The progression of colors varies from one production to the next, but a typical sequence would be: blue, pink, yellow, green, gold, salmon, cherry, white, and then back to blue.

In some cases, usually before the start of principal photography, an entirely new "white draft" will be distributed in lieu of colored revision pages. The pages in a white draft are renumbered from scratch, while the original scene numbers are maintained.

Preserving scene and page numbers
When revisions are made to a shooting script, they must be accomplished in a way that doesn't disturb the pre-existing scene numbers. For example, if a new scene is to be inserted between scenes 10 and 11, the new scene will be numbered 10A. Every scene thus retains its own unique number throughout the course of the production. When a scene is omitted, its number is preserved in the script along with the phrase (OMITTED). This effectively retires the number so that it can't be reused by a new scene inserted later at the same location.

Page numbers in a shooting script are handled in a similar way. When revision pages are distributed, the page numbers must flow sequentially into the pre-existing page numbers. For example, if page 10 is revised such that it now occupies a page and a half, the revisions will be distributed on two pages numbered 10 and 10A. These two pages will replace page 10 in the outstanding drafts. Conversely, if pages 15 and 16 are shortened such that they now occupy a single page, the revisions will be distributed on a single page numbered 15-16.

Scene continued
When a numbered scene is split across pages, (CONTINUED) appears at the bottom of the prior page, and CONTINUED: appears at the top of the subsequent page. This continued indicator appears along with the number of the scene being continued and a bracketed count of how often the scene has been continued thus far, e.g. 107 CONTINUED: (2). The number is usually omitted when it's equal to one.

Dialogue continued
When dialogue is split across pages, (MORE) appears below the portion of dialogue on the first page, similar to a parenthetical but indented the same as the character's name. On the subsequent page, the remaining dialogue is headed by the character's name, which is extended by an abbreviated continued indicator, e.g. JOHN (CONT'D).
When a character speaks more than once consecutively, with only action separating the speeches, (continuing) parentheticals can be used in the subsequent speeches. (continuing) parentheticals are positioned the same as standard ones: below the character's name and indented from the dialogue. Some writers indicate consecutive dialogue by including (CONT'D) beside the character's name (the same as for dialogue split across pages). Many writers choose not to indicate consecutive dialogue at all.

Dialogue continueds apply to both spec and production scripts. They are mentioned here because of the confusion that arises over the many uses of continued.

The revision slug
A slug (header) appears at the top of every revision page, aligned vertically with the page number. The revision slug typically includes the date the revisions were circulated, the color of the pages in parentheses, and usually, the name of the production or some other descriptive information. Every set of revisions is distributed along with a title page that includes a list of the revision slugs for every set of revisions distributed thus far.

Revision marks
Script revisions are marked with asterisks in the right hand margins of the revision pages. When many revision marks are present on a single page, or within a single paragraph or scene, the marks may be consolidated into a single mark. For example, if all the lines in a given passage of dialogue are marked, the marks can be consolidated into a single mark appearing alongside the name of the speaker above the dialogue. In the case of scenes, this single "consolidation mark" appears alongside the scene header. For pages, the consolidation mark appears beside the page number.

Screenwriting software
Most screenwriting software applications include functions for handling the formats and procedures described above, with varying degrees of automation.
Screenwriting software applications are word processors specialized to the task of writing screenplays. The need for such programs arises from the presence of certain peculiarities in standard screenplay format which are not handled well by generic word processors. A good example would be the formatting and revision-tracking requirements of shooting scripts. The page-break constraints imposed by standard screenplay format are also difficult to implement using standard word processors.

Most of the major screenwriting programs are standalone desktop applications. These include Celtx, DreamaScript, Final Draft, Montage, Movie Magic Screenwriter, Movie Outline, and Sophocles.

Some new solutions are web applications and run in a web browser with no software to install. These include ScriptBuddy, Scripped and Zhura.
Many other programs are available as add-ins for generic word processors such as Microsoft Word. Examples include Dr. Format and Script Wizard. There is also a package for LaTeX called screenplay.

Some screenwriting applications, such as Celtx and Sophocles, also incorporate production scheduling and budgeting capabilities. Others, such as Zhura, provide additional collaborative editing tools.

The first screenwriting software was a stand alone script formatter, Scriptor, from Screenplay Systems. It took a text file generated by a word processor and inserted the proper page break tags.

When used in conjunction with a TSR program such as SmartKey or ProKey -- keyboard utilities that assigned a sequence of commands to keystroke combinations -- the "dot commands" that Scriptor required could be inserted semi-automatically.
Additionally, keyboard macros could be programmed to properly indent and enter abbreviations -- allowing a user to customize the working of the word processor.
SmartKey was popular with screen writers from 1982-1987, after which word processing programs had their own macro features.

An update to Scriptor understood the style sheets used in Microsoft Word for DOS. And so the need for key macro programs was lessened.
Scriptor's limitation was that once formatted it was difficult to re-import the resulting text back into a word processor for further editing.
The next generation of screenplay software hooked into Microsoft Word. Warren Script Application was initially released as a set of style sheets for Word for DOS. It was updated for Word for Windows circa 1988.

gScript, a shareware script formatter / template, as released via CompuServe in 1989. It was included on the disk accompanying the book "Take Word for Windows to the Edge," published by Ziff-Davis in 1993. It has since been updated and released commercially as ScriptWright.
This third generation of screenplay software consists of the standalone script writing programs such as Movie Magic Screenwriter, Final Draft, Scriptware.

The latest generation adds online storage and collaboration. New partnerships, such as that recently announced between Movie Magic Screenwriter and Scripped, may lead to online and offline synchronization.

List of Screenplay Writing software
BPC-Screenplay - Screenwriting software Microsoft Windows
Celtx - An open source project on Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, and Linux.
Final Draft - Screenwriting software Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. Considered the industry standard.

Montage software - Popular screenwriting software for Mac only.
Movie Magic Screenwriter - Integrated professional screenwriting software. Available on Mac and Microsoft Windows.

Movie Outline - Professional script writing and story development software for Mac and PC.
ScreenCraft Screenwriting Software - Windows based screenwriting software for MS Windows.
Scripped - Free professional browser-based screenwriting text editing software.
Zhura - Free online professional screenwriting software. Features public and group collaboration.

Model Screenplay: Titanic
Hi friends here I am giving first seven Scenes Screenplay from famous Hollywood film “Titanic”.

A screenplay by James Cameron
Cast: KATE WINSLET... Rose DeWitt Bukater
KATHY BATES... The Unsinkable Molly Brown
BILLY ZANE... Caledon Hockley
BILL PAXTON... Brock Lovett
Written and Directed by: JAMES CAMERON

Then two faint lights appear, close together... growing brighter. Theyresolve into two DEEP SUBMERSIBLES, free-falling toward us like expresselevators.
One is ahead of the other, and passes close enough to FILL FRAME, lookinglike a spacecraft blazing with lights, bristling with insectilemanipulators.
TILTING DOWN to follow it as it descends away into the limitless blacknessbelow. Soon they are fireflies, then stars. Then gone.

PUSHING IN on one of the falling submersibles, called MIR ONE, right up toits circular viewport to see the occupants.
INSIDE, it is a cramped seven foot sphere, crammed with equipment. ANATOLYMIKAILAVICH, the sub's pilot, sits hunched over his controls... singingsoftly in Russian.
Next to him on one side is BROCK LOVETT. He's in his late forties, deeplytanned, and likes to wear his Nomex suit unzipped to show the gold fromfamous shipwrecks covering his gray chest hair. He is a wiley, fast-talkingtreasure hunter, a salvage superstar who is part historian, part adventurerand part vacuum cleaner salesman. Right now, he is propped against the CO2scrubber, fast asleep and snoring.
On the other side, crammed into the remaining space is a bearded wide-bodynamed LEWIS BODINE, sho is also asleep. Lewis is an R.O.V. (REMOTELYOPERATED VEHICLE) pilot and is the resident Titanic expert.
Anatoly glances at the bottom sonar and makes a ballast adjustment.

A pale, dead-flat lunar landscape. It gets brighter, lit from above, as MIRONE enters FRAME and drops to the seafloor in a downblast from itsthrusters. It hits bottom after its two hour free-fall with a loud BONK.

Lovett and Bodine jerk awake at the landing.
(heavy Russian accent)
We are here.

skim over the seafloor to the sound ofsidescan sonar and the THRUM of big thrusters.

6 The featureless gray clay of the bottom unrols in the lights of the subs.
Bodine is watching the sidescan sonar display, where the outline of a hugepointed object is visible. Anatoly lies prone, driving the sub, his facepressed to the center port.
Come left a little. She's right in front of us, eighteen meters. Fifteen.Thirteen... you should see it.
Do you see it? I don't see it... there!
Out of the darkness, like a ghostly apparition, the bow of the shipappears. Its knife-edge prow is coming straight at us, seeming to plow thebottom sediment like ocean waves. It towers above the seafloor, standingjust as it landed 84 years ago.
THE TITANIC. Or what is left of her. Mir One goes up and over the bowrailing, intact except for an overgrowth of "rusticles" draping it likemutated Spanish moss.
TIGHT ON THE EYEPIECE MONITOR of a video camcorder.
Brock Lovett's facefills the BLACK AND WHITE FRAME.
It still gets me every time.
The image pans to the front viewport, looking over Anatoly's shoulder, tothe bow railing visible in the lights beyond. Anatoly turns.
Is just your guilt because of stealing from the dead.
CUT WIDER, to show that Brock is operating the camera himself, turning itin his hand so it points at his own face.
Thanks, Tolya. Work with me, here.
Brock resumes his serious, pensive gaze out the front port, with the cameraaimed at himself at arm's length.
It still gets me every time... to see the sad ruin of the great shipsitting here, where she landed at 2:30 in the morning, April 15, 1912,after her long fall from the world above.
Anatoly rolls his eyes and mutters in Russian. Bodine chuckles and watchesthe sonar.
You are so full of shit, boss.

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